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AMERICA'S LEGACY IN PANAMA

PANAMA CANAL TREATY TRANSITION

END OF AN ERA

U.S. MILITARY IN PANAMA

U.S. MILITARY IN REGION-History

LIFE AFTER SOUTHCOM

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 PRESIDENT GUILLERMO ENDARA (1989-1994)

President Endara took office as the head of a four-party minority government, pledging to foster Panama's economic recovery, transform the Panamanian military into a police force under civilian control, and strengthen democratic institutions. During its five-year term, the often-fractious Endara government struggled to meet the public's high expectations. Its new police force proved to be a major improvement in outlook and behavior over its thuggish predecessor but was not fully able to deter crime. 

PRESIDENT ERNESTO PEREZ BALLADARES  (1994-1999)

Ernesto Perez Balladares was sworn in as President on September 1, 1994, after an internationally monitored election campaign. He ran as the candidate for a three-party coalition dominated by the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), the erstwhile political arm of the military dictatorship during the Torrijos and Noriega years. A long-time member of the PRD, Perez Balladares worked skillfully during the campaign to rehabilitate the PRD's image, emphasizing the party's populist Torrijos roots rather than its association with Noriega. He won the election with only 33% of the vote when the major non-PRD forces, unable to agree on a joint candidate, splintered into competing factions. His administration carried out economic reforms and often worked closely with the U.S. on implementation of the Canal treaties.

PRESIDENT MIREYA MOSCOSO  (1999-2004)

On September 1, 1999 , Mireya Moscoso, the widow of former President Arnulfo Arias Madrid, took office after defeating PRD candidate Martin Torrijos, son of the late dictator Omar Torrijos, in a free and fair election. During her administration, Moscoso attempted to strengthen social programs, especially for child and youth development, protection, and general welfare. Moscoso's administration successfully handled the Panama Canal transfer and was effective in the administration of the Canal.

PRESIDENT MARTIN TORRIJOS ESPINO (2004-2009)

In the national elections on May 2, 2004, the PRDís Martin Torrijos won the presidency and a PRD legislative majority in the National Assembly. Torrijos was inaugurated on September 1, 2004. Torrijos ran his campaign on a platform of, among other pledges, "zero tolerance" for corruption, a problem endemic to the Moscoso and Perez Balladares administrations. Since taking office, Martin Torrijos has passed a number of laws making the government more transparent. He formed a National Anti-Corruption Council whose members represent the highest levels of government, as well as civil society, labor organizations, and religious leadership. In addition, many of his closest Cabinet ministers are non-political technocrats known for their support for the Torrijos governmentís anti-corruption aims.  Despite the Torrijos administration's public stance on corruption, few high-profile cases, particularly involving political or business elites, have been acted upon.  

 

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This page last updated: July 19, 2009 

Site developed, owned and maintained by 

William H. Ormsbee, Jr. 

1999 - 2009

 

 

Guillermo Endara Galimany

(December 1989 - September 1994)

 

 Ernesto Perez Balladares

(September 1994 - September 1999)

 

Mireya Moscoso

(September 1999 - September 2004)

 

Martin Torrijos Espino

(September 2004 - July 2009)